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blitzkrieg meaning in german

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Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is an anglicised term, describing a method of warfare, whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorized or mechanized infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defense by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and … English Translation. The French had developed a light and fast-moving tank. What is a sentence with the word blitzkrieg? In the stunned aftermath of France’s fall, both Nazi propaganda and Western media attributed Germany’s success to the revolutionary new form of warfare known as blitzkrieg. [25] The German popular press followed suit nine months later, after the fall of France in 1940; hence although the word had been used in German, it was first popularized by British journalism. [20] The term seems rarely to have been used in the German military press before 1939 and recent research at the German Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt at Potsdam found it in only two military articles from the 1930s. It would be wrong to include tanks in infantry divisions; what was needed were armoured divisions which would include all the supporting arms needed to allow the tanks to fight with full effect. But unlike in 1914-18, German forces fighting in 1939-40 had the benefit of new military technology developed or improved in the 1920s and 1930s, including tanks, motor vehicles, aircraft and radios. Blitzkrieg relied on a military force be based around light tank units supported by planes and infantry (foot soldiers). He was later asked to write an explanatory book, which was titled Achtung Panzer! The manoeuvrability and technical capability of the next generation of bombers would be 'as unstoppable as the flight of a shell. blitz[noun]a sudden, vigorous attack, originally in war. [j] In 2000, Niklas Zetterling and Anders Frankson characterised only the southern pincer of the German offensive as a "classical blitzkrieg attack". Delegation and the encouragement of initiative aided implementation, important decisions could be taken quickly and communicated verbally or with brief written orders. [104], The Germans did not achieve surprise and were not able to outflank or break through into enemy rear areas during the operation. Student described it as ideas that "naturally emerged from the existing circumstances" as a response to operational challenges. He developed Plan 1919 for massive, independent tank operations, which he claimed were subsequently studied by the German military. [78], German volunteers first used armour in live field conditions during the Spanish Civil War of 1936. By June 1944 the Western Allies had complete control of the air over the battlefield and their fighter-bomber aircraft were very effective at attacking ground forces. In German, what does the word 'Blitzkrieg' mean? In such formation of all arms, the tanks must play primary role, the other weapons being subordinated to the requirements of the armour. It was here that most losses were inflicted upon the enemy, primarily through the mass capture of prisoners and weapons. Launched in poor weather against a thinly held Allied sector, it achieved surprise and initial success as Allied air power was grounded by cloud cover. [67], The last part of an offensive operation was the destruction of un-subdued pockets of resistance, which had been enveloped earlier and by-passed by the fast-moving armoured and motorised spearheads. [111], In 1965, Captain Robert O'Neill, Professor of the History of War at the University of Oxford produced an example of the popular view. Beyond their goal of crushing Italian Axis forces, the Allies wanted to draw German troops away from ...read more, Adolf Hitler, the leader of Germany’s Nazi Party, was one of the most powerful and notorious dictators of the 20th century. [12] The Wehrmacht never officially adopted it as a concept or doctrine. The commander in chief, Hans von Seeckt, argued that there had been an excessive focus on encirclement and emphasized speed instead. Eng.) In Operation Dynamo some 330,000 French and British troops escaped.[89]. The German army was trained to support the Schwerpunkt, even when risks had to be taken elsewhere to support the point of main effort. In May 1940 came Germany’s invasion of Belgium, the Netherlands and France, during which the the Wehrmacht (German army) used the combined force of tanks, mobile infantry and artillery troops to drive through the Ardennes Forest and quickly penetrated the Allied defenses. Determined defence by US troops in places throughout the Ardennes, the lack of good roads and German supply shortages caused delays. English words for blitz include flash, lightning and thunderbolt. 2 : blitz … German commander Erwin Rommel, who led a Panzer division during the invasion of France, later employed blitzkrieg tactics against British forces in the deserts of North Africa in 1941-42. [134], Living standards were not high in the late 1930s. During the Battle of Moscow, the Red Army defeated the German Army Group Center and for the first time in the war seized the strategic initiative. [27] In early January 1942, Hitler dismissed it as "Italian phraseology". [72], The influence of air forces over forces on the ground changed significantly over the course of the Second World War. [143], British theorists John Frederick Charles Fuller and Captain Basil Henry Liddell Hart have often been associated with the development of blitzkrieg, though this is a matter of controversy. Panzer Lehr, for instance, on 7 June alone lost 84 half-tracks, prime movers and self propelled guns, 40 fuel bowsers, 90 soft-skinned vehicles and five tanks as it made its way from Le Mans to Caen. The following day the Allies made repeated attempts to destroy the German pontoon bridges, but German fighter aircraft, ground fire and Luftwaffe flak batteries with the panzer forces destroyed 56 percent of the attacking Allied aircraft while the bridges remained intact. This is a crude caricature of a highly competent general who authored Army Regulation 300 (Troop Leadership) in 1933, the primary tactical manual of the German Army in World War II, and under whose direction the first three panzer divisions were created in 1935, the largest such force in the world of the time.[155]. Directive control was a fast and flexible method of command. Milward described an economy positioned between a full war economy and a peacetime economy. [b] According to Frieser, in the context of the thinking of Heinz Guderian on mobile combined arms formations, blitzkrieg can be used as a synonym for modern maneuver warfare on the operational level. In his 1950 book, Panzer Leader, he wrote: In this year, 1929, I became convinced that tanks working on their own or in conjunction with infantry could never achieve decisive importance. Richard Overy pointed out some 23 percent of German output was military by 1939. [73] In addition, German air parity or superiority allowed the unencumbered movement of ground forces, their unhindered assembly into concentrated attack formations, aerial reconnaissance, aerial resupply of fast moving formations and close air support at the point of attack. "[92] The Red Army was to be destroyed west of the Dvina and Dnieper rivers, which were about 500 kilometres (310 mi) east of the Soviet border, to be followed by a mopping-up operation. His book offers scant clues as to how German lightning victories might be won. Nearly all discussed the use of strategic airpower, some emphasising that aspect of air warfare to the exclusion of others. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. [142], The Luftwaffe did end up with an air force consisting mainly of relatively short-range aircraft, but this does not prove that the German air force was solely interested in 'tactical' bombing. [38][39] The four editions of Field Service Regulations published after 1918 held that only combined-arms operations could create enough fire power to enable mobility on a battlefield. https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/blitzkrieg. [136], Frieser wrote that the Heer (German pronunciation: [ˈheːɐ̯])[k] was not ready for blitzkrieg at the start of the war. Such bombing campaigns were regarded as diversion from the Luftwaffe's main operations; destruction of the enemy armed forces. The Germans never used the term Blitzkrieg in any precise sense, and almost never used it outside of quotations. Terrain would ideally be flat, firm, unobstructed by natural barriers or fortifications, and interspersed with roads and railways. Mobile and available in significant quantity, artillery shattered as many units as any other branch of the Wehrmacht. [50], In 1916 General Alexei Brusilov had used surprise and infiltration tactics during the Brusilov Offensive. The blitzkrieg waged by Germany on England in … The English for Blitzkrieg is blitzkrieg. Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, involved a number of breakthroughs and encirclements by motorised forces. Several German officers and commanders involved in the operation wrote their account of the battle after the war, and some of these postwar accounts were collected by the US Army. [41], Norman Stone detects early blitzkrieg operations in offensives by the French generals Charles Mangin and Marie-Eugène Debeney in 1918. [60] It was Rommel who created the new archetype of Blitzkrieg, leading his division far ahead of flanking divisions. Incidentally, the German Wehrmacht never officially used the word blitzkrieg - literally, "lightning war" - though it did appear in several prewar German military publications.. The main evidence of Liddell Hart's deceit and "tendentious" report of history can be found in his letters to Erich von Manstein, Heinz Guderian and the relatives and associates of Erwin Rommel. Later, Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky (1893-1937), Georgii Isserson [ru] (1898-1976) and other members of the Red Army developed a concept of deep battle from the experience of the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1920. Through his indoctrinated idealisation of an ostentatious concept, he reinforced the myth of blitzkrieg. [140], Corum continues: General Walther Wever compiled a doctrine known as The Conduct of the Aerial War. The roots of the blitzkrieg are hard to pin as it is somewhat vague as to what exactly a blitzkrieg is. [24] After the invasion of Poland, the British press commonly used the term to describe German successes in that campaign, something Harris called "a piece of journalistic sensationalism – a buzz-word with which to label the spectacular early successes of the Germans in the Second World War". Berger invited more than 30 young scientists […] for a blitzkrieg fossil fest lasting six weeks. On the Eastern Front, the war did not bog down into trench warfare; German and Russian armies fought a war of manoeuvre over thousands of miles, which gave the German leadership unique experience not available to the trench-bound western Allies. Translation for 'Blitzkrieg' in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. Blitzkrieg - Arabic meanings: الهجوم - Definition & Synonyms English to Arabic dictionary gives you the best and accurate Arabic translation and meanings of Blitzkrieg. The German General Staff was abolished by the treaty but continued covertly as the Truppenamt (Troop Office), disguised as an administrative body. All Rights Reserved. Pronunciation IPA: /blît͡skriːg/ Hyphenation: блиц|криг Noun… sitzkrieg: see also Sitzkrieg‎ sitzkrieg (English) Origin & history , a pun on lit=lightning war‎.Pronunciation … The targets of the German aircraft were actually the rail lines and bridges. It was flexible and it was able to carry out both operational-tactical, and strategic bombing. Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is an anglicised term, describing a method of warfare, whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorized or mechanized infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defense by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them. It is often used to describe the German air raids on London in 1940, but many other cities were also blitzed. That the German army had a "blitzkrieg doctrine" was rejected in the late 1970s by Matthew Cooper. The Allies adapted blitzkrieg to their own advantage by the end of World War II, including in the Battle of Stalingrad and the European operations commanded by U.S. General George Patton in 1944. Blitzkrieg starts with air raids, followed bylong range artillery, which is closely followed by mobilzed armour divisions. Shimon Naveh wrote "The striking feature of the blitzkrieg concept is the complete absence of a coherent theory which should have served as the general cognitive basis for the actual conduct of operations". Instead, the purpose of a blitzkrieg is to use ease of movement, shock, and locally concentrated firepower in a skillfully coordinated attack to paralyze the enemy’s ability to coordinate his own defenses. Blitzkrieg, which means “lightning war” in German, had its roots in earlier military strategy, including the influential work of the 19th-century Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz. [100] In the summer of 1944, the Red Army destroyed Army Group Centre in Operation Bagration, using combined-arms tactics for armour, infantry and air power in a coordinated strategic assault, known as deep operations, which led to an advance of 600 kilometres (370 mi) in six weeks. Hermann Göring had consistently stated that the task of the Four Year Plan was to rearm Germany for total war. [88], The group raced to the English Channel, reaching the coast at Abbeville and cut off the BEF, the Belgian Army and some of the best-equipped divisions of the French Army in northern France. That the Third Reich went to war on the basis of "blitzkrieg economics" was criticised by Richard Overy in the 1980s and George Raudzens described the contradictory senses in which historians have used the word. Entries with "Blitzkrieg" блицкриг: блицкриг (Serbo-Croatian) Origin & history From German Blitzkrieg‎. [119] Robert M. Citino argues: Blitzkrieg was not a doctrine, or an operational scheme, or even a tactical system. The French armies were much reduced in strength and the confidence of their commanders shaken. The appearance of the aircraft and tank in the First World War, called an RMA, offered the German military a chance to get back to the traditional war of movement as practised by Moltke the Elder. The German blitzkrieg strategy was allegedly intended, in the endeavor for world rule, to bridge the deep chasm between far-reaching wartime objectives and inadequate power potential by overwhelming the enemies, one after the other, in a series of individual, successive campaigns that would last only a short time. An armoured counter-attack organised by Colonel de Gaulle could not be sustained and he had to retreat. [111], At the outbreak of war, the German army had no radically new theory of war. The Kesselschlacht 'cauldron battle' was a concentric attack on such pockets. Translations of blitzkrieg from English to German and index of blitzkrieg in the bilingual analogic dictionary According to the Bible the end times will come very quickly, just like the German Blitzkrieg on it's unknowing opponents. When Liddell Hart was questioned about this in 1968 and the discrepancy between the English and German editions of Guderian's memoirs, "he gave a conveniently unhelpful though strictly truthful reply. [71] Since the French thought the Ardennes unsuitable for massive troop movement, particularly for tanks, they were left with only light defences which were quickly overrun by the Wehrmacht. It switched from air superiority missions, to medium-range interdiction, to strategic strikes, to close support duties depending on the need of the ground forces. A blitzkrieg is a fast and intense military attack that takes the enemy by surprise and is intended to achieve a very quick victory. Liddell Hart, in letters to Guderian, "imposed his own fabricated version of blitzkrieg on the latter and compelled him to proclaim it as original formula". Central to this was the decision cycle (tempo). During the Battle of France in 1940, the 4th Armoured Division (Major-General Charles de Gaulle) and elements of the 1st Army Tank Brigade (British Expeditionary Force) made probing attacks on the German flank, pushing into the rear of the advancing armoured columns at times. In December 1941, Hitler unilaterally declared war on the United States, which consequently added its tremendous economic and military power to the coalition arrayed against him. Blitzkrieg means lightning war in English. Where the ability for rapid movement across "tank country" was not possible, armoured penetrations often were avoided or resulted in failure. Then in April 1940, Germany invaded neutral Norway, seizing the capital, Oslo, and the country’s main ports with a series of surprise attacks. German successes are closely related to the extent to which the German Luftwaffe was able to control the air war in early campaigns in Western and Central Europe, and the Soviet Union. Realising the limitations of infantry and cavalry, Tukhachevsky advocated mechanised formations and the large-scale industrialisation they required. [a], It was the opposite of a doctrine. Such was the Vernichtungsgedanke of the Polish campaign. Its goal according to Führer Directive 21 (18 December 1940) was "to destroy the Russian forces deployed in the West and to prevent their escape into the wide-open spaces of Russia. As a result, while France focused its efforts between the wars on building up its defensive border, known as the Maginot Line, the Germans decided to prepare for a shorter conflict won through military maneuvers, rather than in the trenches. In World War II, German Panzer forces used motorised mobility to paralyse the opponent's ability to react. German attempts to weather the storm and fight out of encirclements failed due to the Russian ability to continue to feed armoured units into the attack, maintaining the mobility and strength of the offensive, arriving in force deep in the rear areas, faster than the Germans could regroup. The tactic was based on Alfred von Schlieffen’s ‘Schlieffen Plan’ – this … Definition of blitzkrieg noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. He read Guderian's 1937 book Achtung – Panzer! Guderian summarised combined-arms tactics as the way to get the mobile and motorised armoured divisions to work together and support each other to achieve decisive success. Allied counter-attacks soon forced back the Germans, who abandoned much equipment for lack of fuel. [47] In an advance of 65 miles (105 km), captures were estimated to be "at least 25,000 prisoners and 260 guns. In a blitzkrieg, troops in vehicles, such as tanks, made quick surprise strikes with support from airplanes. [68][f], Close air support was provided in the form of the dive bomber and medium bomber. German forces employed some tactics associated with blitzkrieg in the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and the invasion of Poland in 1939, including combined air-ground attacks and the use of Panzer tank divisions to quickly crush the poorly equipped Polish troops. Tactically, blitzkrieg is a coordinated military effort by tanks, motorized infantry, artillery and airc… krieg (blĭts′krēg′) n. A swift, sudden military offensive, usually by combined air and mobile land forces. The British also had an "enviable" contingent of motorised forces. The Luftwaffe deployed squadrons of fighters, dive bombers and transport aircraft as the Condor Legion. lightning. Blitzkrieg is a German word meaning “lightning war.” A blitzkrieg does not aim to physically overcome an enemy. German thinking reverted to the possibility of a quick and decisive war for the Balkan campaign and Operation Barbarossa.[113]. [110], The last German offensive on the Western front, the Battle of the Bulge (Operation Wacht am Rhein), was an offensive launched towards the port of Antwerp in December 1944. [11] Some senior officers, including Kurt Student, Franz Halder and Johann Adolf von Kielmansegg, even disputed the idea that it was a military concept. While direct attacks against civilians were ruled out as "terror bombing", the concept of the attacking the vital war industries – and probable heavy civilian casualties and breakdown of civilian morale – was ruled as acceptable. Within the Inspectorate of Transport Troops, Guderian and colleagues performed theoretical and field exercise work. Hitler strongly supported this new strategy. Both used the term to mean a swift strategic knock-out, rather than a radical new military doctrine or approach to war. The Mortain counter-attack was defeated by the US 12th Army Group with little effect on its own offensive operations. [36] Delegation of authority to local commanders increased the tempo of operations, which had great influence on the success of German armies in the early war period. Blitzkrieg means "lightening war". ‘During World War II, the German blitzkrieg demonstrated a major change in the conduct of warfare.’ ‘The idea of lightning strikes, blitzkriegs, and selective engagement per se is nothing new, going way back into military history.’ ‘The Germans attacked in the best blitzkrieg style, armour supported by aircraft.’ The assassination ...read more, After defeating Italy and Germany in the North African Campaign (November 8, 1942-May 13, 1943) of World War II (1939-45), the United States and Great Britain, the leading Allied powers, looked ahead to the invasion of occupied Europe and the final defeat of Nazi Germany. [94][95] On the ground, four German panzer groups outflanked and encircled disorganised Red Army units, while the marching infantry completed the encirclements and defeated the trapped forces. A new experimental brigade was intended for the next year and became a permanent formation in 1933, during the cuts of the 1932/33–1934/35 financial years. "[48] Liddell Hart considered that important aspects of the operation were the extent to which Ottoman commanders were denied intelligence on the British preparations for the attack through British air superiority and air attacks on their headquarters and telephone exchanges, which paralyzed attempts to react to the rapidly deteriorating situation. [97] The Red Army had survived enormous losses and regrouped with new formations far to the rear of the front line. This was in shocking contrast to the four years of trench warfare they had engaged in during the First World War. [16][17] Blitzkrieg as used by Germany had considerable psychological, or "terror" elements,[c] such as the Jericho Trompete, a noise-making siren on the Junkers Ju 87 dive-bomber, to affect the morale of enemy forces. [100] The Battle of Kursk ended with two Soviet counter-offensives and the revival of deep operations. Titans of War: Tanks Reshape the Battlefield. Seeckt, who believed in the Prussian tradition of mobility, developed the German army into a mobile force, advocating technical advances that would lead to a qualitative improvement of its forces and better coordination between motorized infantry, tanks, and planes. Like von Seeckt, de Gaulle concluded that France could no longer maintain the huge armies of conscripts and reservists which had fought World War I, and he sought to use tanks, mechanised forces and aircraft to allow a smaller number of highly trained soldiers to have greater impact in battle. [132], Half of the German divisions available in 1940 were combat ready but less well-equipped than the British and French or the Imperial German Army of 1914. [103] The Soviets made a concerted effort to disguise their knowledge of German plans and the extent of their own defensive preparations, and the German commanders still hoped to achieve operational surprise when the attack commenced. [82], Despite the term blitzkrieg being coined by journalists during the Invasion of Poland of 1939, historians Matthew Cooper and J. P. Harris have written that German operations during it were consistent with traditional methods. [149], During World War I, Fuller had been a staff officer attached to the new tank corps. In it he explained the theories of the tank men and defended them. In the 1930s, Guderian summarised this as "Klotzen, nicht kleckern!" ("Kick, don't spatter them!"). James Corum wrote: Guderian expressed a hearty contempt for General Ludwig Beck, chief of the General Staff from 1935 to 1938, whom he characterized as hostile to ideas of modern mechanised warfare: [Corum quoting Guderian] "He [Beck] was a paralysing element wherever he appeared....[S]ignificantly of his way of thought was his much-boosted method of fighting which he called delaying defence". [87][h] There was no time for such a reinforcement to be sent, for the Germans did not wait for siege artillery but reached the Meuse and achieved a breakthrough at the Battle of Sedan in three days. [15], The traditional meaning of blitzkrieg is that of German tactical and operational methodology in the first half of the Second World War, that is often hailed as a new method of warfare. The word, meaning "lightning war" or "lightning attack" in its strategic sense describes a series of quick and decisive short battles to deliver a knockout blow to an enemy state before it could fully mobilize. 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